Use 3A, 4A & 5A adsorbents for natural gas dehydration
What Is Natural Gas?
In order to have an idea about the gas dehydration process and, we ought to have a better understanding of the component that is being dehydrated. Despite being a very popular source of fuel, not most industries are familiar with the true face of natural gas. So, what exactly is Natural gas?
To give you the exact definition of Natural gas, it is basically a hydrocarbon gas that mainly consists of Methane or CH4 along with some other hydrocarbons in lesser quantities. Formed more than a million years back, this natural gas is the product of the sea and ocean organisms that sunk right into the ocean bottom and were stored beneath structures of sedimentary rocks. After getting subjected to some intense episodes of pressure and heat, the organisms went through transformation phase and gave is the natural gas which is one of the most popular sorts of fuel for energy that we use.
Nowadays we get natural gas right under the rocks that are underground and are called reservoirs. There are tiny spaces present in between these rocks, these tiny spaces or pores are the places where natural gas gets normally stored along with water, oil and other components.
One of the most common ways of extracting the natural gas is through the process of drilling the wells. With pieces of equipment that can penetrate the impermeable rocks, the natural gas is extracted using these artificial methods. When it comes to the different variations of the Natural gas such as the shale gas, sour gas, tight gas, methane hydrates, and coal beds, each of them has got their own standard process of extraction. Most people also find the natural gas trapped in the reservoirs along with oil and other components.
Moving on to the details, we have 2 different types of natural gas. These types are defined and differentiated on the basis of the methane content that they have. It is readily reflected in the formation processes that they both have.
The biogenic gas or more commonly known as the Dry gas has got more or less than 95% of methane in it. The formation of the dry gas is through the decaying process of bacteria in the shallow depths.
The other type of gas that we have is the Thermogenic one which consists of more than 95% of the methane. This type is popularly known as the Wet Gas. A low-quality version of the natural gas, it is generally formed in the places with high temperature. There are some other compounds such as Butane and Ethane in the Wet natural gas apart from the methane content.
These variations of natural gas are extracted and then used for different purposes. To understand how the entire Natural gas sweetening process design and simulation work, we need to have an idea about the uses of the Natural gas first.
Uses & Applications Of Natural Gas
There are many different sectors that can benefit from the use of natural gas. The Northern Hemisphere is the region which uses natural gas the most. Europe and North America are some major consumers of natural gas.
The natural gas is a very common fuel used for the generation of the energy. Particularly in the USA, this source of energy is often used for the generation of electricity. But there are some other sectors that can benefit from natural gas as well.
Natural gas is used in the industrial sector as the process heating fuel. Most of the combined power and heating systems in America are using it nowadays. Also, it is used as certain raw material which can be further used in order to create the fertilizers, chemicals, hydrogen and much more. In the year 2017, about 35% of the natural gas in the US was consumed by the industrial sector.
Electrical Power Sector
Natural gas is a very useful component which can be used for the generation of electricity. It was in the year 2017 where the power sector consumed about 34% of the natural gas for the generation of electricity. Also, natural gas was found to be the main source for about 26% of the entire power sector in the US. The USA consuming sectors are the major ones that consume power and electricity generated by the natural gas.
Natural gas is also a very important factor of use for the domestic sector in Europe and America. Natural gas can be used in order to heat water, for cooking purposes and also for the drying of the clothes. Most homes, almost half of them, in the USA are currently using the natural gas as a power source for doing exactly that. The residential sector accounted for about 16% of the total consumption of natural gas in the year 2017.
One of the main uses and applications of natural gas is actually in the commercial sector. The commercial section uses the natural gas in order to power the heating systems that heat water and buildings. Also, it can be used for drying clothes, cooking. Natural gas is also a major power source for the outdoor lighting in such commercial sectors. Most of the consumers that are in this sector use this component in order to power up their heating and cooling systems as well. About 12% of the entire natural gas consumption happened in the USA in the year 2017.
How Does Natural Gas Power Plants Work?
The entire concept of processing the natural gas revolves around cleaning the impurities and unnecessary components that are present in the natural gas. The processing of the natural gas is done in order to produce what we know as the pipeline quality in the natural gas. The processing plant for natural gas a very elaborate process of working and that is we are going to be discussing right now.
With the help of the pipelines, the natural gas is transferred directly into the processing plants. The plant is actually a system that consists of pipes that are interconnected with each other and also to the different wells in the area.
Some of the most common products that come out from the processing of the natural plants are known as the NGLs or the Natural Gas Liquids. Such by-products include butane, propane, ethane, natural gasoline and isobutene. These natural gas liquids are then sold separately to the different industries and can be used in certain purposes such as recovery of oil from the well, providing the raw materials for the petrochemical plants and oil refineries. Some of them are also used as different energy sources as well.
The actual procedure of the natural gas processing to make it pipeline quality is actually a very complicated one. However, to simplify it, the process involves the removal of these impurities that are mentioned below.
- Condensate and oil removal
- Removal of water or dehydration of Natural gas
- Separation of the different natural gas liquids or the NGLs
- Removal of carbon dioxide and sulfur
Apart from these complex procedures, there are scrubbers and heaters installed in the wellhead in order to remove other impurities such as sand particles and dirt. This is mainly the function of the scrubber. The heaters on the other hand help in maintaining the temperature of the processing plant, ensuring that it doesn’t drop while the processing is going on.
How To Dehydrate Natural Gas Using Molecular Sieves?
As mentioned in the points below, one of the most common processes in the processing plant is the removal of water from the natural gas. It is also known as sweetening or dehydration of the natural gas. Here we will be discussing the Natural gas sweetening process design and simulation with the help of molecular sieves.
We all know that there is water present in the natural gas when it is extracted with the help of drilling. There are some other impurities as well that need to be removed. These impurities and water that are present in the natural gas can cause damage to the quality of the natural gas. Hydrate formation and corrosion are some of the most common problems.
For that reason, the natural gas dehydration process is essential where the water particle and vapours are removed from the natural gas with the help of a proper molecular sieve dehydration unit. Molecular sieves are desiccant materials that are used for the gas dehydration process.
There are many different types of molecular sieves that are used in order to make sure that the entire dehydration process goes on smoothly. 3A, 4A, 5A molecular sieves are some of the most common types that are used. These sieves are differentiated on the basis of the pore size, molecule size, and the gas stream polarity present in these variations. The molecular sieve manufacturer who is responsible for the creation of these sieves will be the one that will differentiate between the sieves.
The 3A, 4A, and 5A molecular sieves are used in the pellets and the beads form for the molecular sieve dehydration because the active adsorption for the entire process of drying is very low when it comes to the natural gas.
The natural gas that consists of additional components such as ethane, butane, propane, etc. can be readily dehydrated with the help of these molecular sieves. There are many cases where the use of the PTSA or the Pressure and Temperature Swing Adsorption technology is decided on the basis of these sieves. This will help in achieving maximum levels of efficiency for the users.
The Molecular sieve 5A has got maximum adsorption for the dehydration process of natural gas which is higher than the 4A and the 3A molecular sieve. However, the molecular sieve 3A is also used largely because it has a maximum capacity of adsorption of water along with the minimum capacity of adsorption of the other molecules.
The entire sweetening process of the natural gas consists of different complex procedures. However, the main gist of the matter is that that natural gas that contains water particles is passed through the columns of the molecular sieves to make sure that the water is successfully removed from the gas.
The Molecular sieve dehydration natural gas technique is considered to be one of the most important ones for the sweetening process of natural gas because these molecular sieves are desiccant and also have adsorption levels which can be used for drying the natural gas in a very efficient manner.
About Our Company
Ever since its existence in the year 1996, Sorbead India has been one of the most reputable and leading names in the industries for the production and supply of quality-molecular sieves.
The ISO 9001-2000 Certified Company has the reputation as one of the distinguished and authorized manufacturers and distributor of desiccant molecular sieves which are created by internationally renowned productions.
Synonymous with high-class quality and support, the company has created adsorbents and sieves for some of the most prominent industries till date and will continue to do so. The sieves and adsorbents manufactured by this company have numerous used in the natural gas industries.